A good design scheme can not be separated from the understanding of water quality; understanding the source and characteristics of wastewater and the production process is of great help to our design scheme and selection of treatment process. We plan to collect all kinds of industrial wastewater sources, characteristics and treatment methods, hope to be used for reference and sharing industrial water treatment industry colleagues, learn from each other, together for the development of water treatment industry in China.
Industrial wastewater refers to the wastewater discharged from the industrial production process, including process water, cooling water for machinery and equipment, flue gas washing water, equipment and site washing water, etc. Because of the variety of industrial types, each industry is composed of multi-stage processes, the properties of wastewater are completely different and the composition is very complex. According to the different harm caused by wastewater to environmental pollution, it can be roughly divided into solid pollutants, organic pollutants, oil pollutants, toxic pollutants, biological pollutants, acid and alkali pollutants, aerobic pollutants, nutritional pollutants, sensory pollutants and thermal pollution.
- Characteristics and Treatment of Acid-base Wastewater
Acid wastewater mainly comes from iron and steel plants, chemical plants, dye plants, electroplating plants and mines, which contain various harmful substances or heavy metal salts. The mass fraction of acid varies greatly, the low is less than 1 and the high is more than 10. Alkaline wastewater mainly comes from printing and dyeing factory, leather factory, paper mill, refinery and so on. Some of them contain organic bases or inorganic bases. Some of the mass fractions of alkali are higher than 5 and some are lower than 1. Acid and alkali wastewater, in addition to containing acid and alkali, often contains acid salt. Basic salts and other inorganic and organic compounds.
Acid and alkali wastewater has a strong corrosion, need to be properly treated before discharge.
The principle of treating acid-base wastewater is:
(1) High-concentration acid-base wastewater should be recycled as a matter of priority. According to the requirements of water quality, quantity of water and different processes, plant or regional scheduling should be carried out for reuse as far as possible; if reuse is difficult, or if the concentration is low and the quantity of water is large, acid-base can be recovered by concentrated method.
(2) Low-concentration acid-base wastewater, such as cleaning water from pickling tanks and rinsing water from alkali washing tanks, shall be neutralized.
For neutralization treatment, the principle of waste treatment should be considered first. For example, acid and alkali wastewater neutralize each other or use waste alkali (slag) to neutralize acid wastewater, and use waste acid to neutralize alkaline wastewater. In the absence of these conditions, neutralizers can be used.